Routing is a system used by routers to allow nodes nodes on a network to connect to other computer networks wirelessly. The router acts as a gateway for data and other connections coming in and out. This is also very similar to a wide area network in terms of connection range as using a router, the computer can connect to networks from around the world. This system of connection and communication is completed with IP addresses primarily.
Switching utilizes switches to connect multiple nodes on a network in order to communicate with one another. This is more in line with a local area network in the sense that each node is connected to an ethernet cord that runs to a port and is connected to a switch that handles traffic flow and what data goes where. This is completed using MAC addresses and allows for transmission between networks if necessary. Switches are not limited to LANs however and the switching method can be used to cover and entire campus for example.
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